Water

Water, The chemistry of life

Whenever we attempt to determine whether there is life as we know it on Mars or other planets, scientists first seek to establish whether or not water is present. Why? Because life on earth totally depends on water.

A High percentage of living things, both plant and animal are found in water. All life on earth is thought to have arisen from water. The bodies of all living organisms are composed largely of water. About 70 to 90 percent of all organic matter is water.

The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that support life take place in a water medium. Water not only provides the medium to make these life sustaining reactions possible, but water itself is often an important reactant or product of these reactions. In short, the chemistry of life is water chemistry.

Water, the universal solvent

Water is a universal, superb solvent due to the marked polarity of the water molecule and its tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water molecule, expressed with the chemical symbol H2O, consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.

Standing alone, the hydrogen atom contains one positive proton at its core with one negative electron revolving around it in a three-dimensional shell. Oxygen, on the other hand, contains 8 protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons revolving around it. This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter O surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of paired electrons.

The single hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen are the key to the chemistry of life because this is where hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a water molecule, or split to form ions.

Hydrogen tends to ionize by losing its single electron and form single H+ ions, which are simply isolated protons since the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A hydrogen bond occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared with another electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks an electron.

Polarity of water molecules

In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom. But because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen’s, its attraction for the hydrogen’s electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are drawn closer into the shell of the larger oxygen atom and away from the hydrogen shells. This means that although the water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative charge.

The shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the oxygen, take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules have a tendency to form weak bonds with water molecules because the oxygen end of the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive.

A hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own molecule, can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends of other molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a continuous chemical entity.

These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the shape of many of the large molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak, they are readily broken and re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The disassembly and re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the chemistry of life.

To illustrate water’s ability to break down other substances, consider the simple example of putting a small amount of table salt in a glass of tap water. With dry salt (NaCl) the attraction between the electropositive sodium (Na+) and electronegative chlorine (Cl-) atoms of salt is very strong until it is placed in water. After salt is placed in water, the attraction of the electronegative oxygen of the water molecule for the positively charged sodium ions, and the similar attraction of the electropositive hydrogen ends of the water molecule for the negatively charged chloride ions, are greater than the mutual attraction between the outnumbered Na+ and Cl- ions. In water the ionic bonds of the sodium chloride molecule are broken easily because of the competitive action of the numerous water molecules.

As we can see from this simple example, even the delicate configuration of individual water molecules enables them to break relatively stronger bonds by converging on them. This is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a natural solution that breaks the bonds of larger, more complex molecules. This is the chemistry of life on earth, in water and on land.

Oxidation-reduction reactions

Basically, reduction means the addition of an electron (e-), and its converse, oxidation means the removal of an electron. The addition of an electron, reduction, stores energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an electron, oxidation, liberates energy from the oxidized compound. Whenever one substance is reduced, another is oxidized.

To clarify these terms, consider any two molecules, A and B, for example.

When molecules A and B come into contact, here is what happens:

B grabs an electron from molecule A.

Molecule A has been oxidized because it has lost an electron.

The net charge of B has been reduced because it has gained a negative electron (e-).

In biological systems, removal or addition of an electron constitutes the most frequent mechanism of oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction reactions are frequently called redox reactions.

An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in water. A base is a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in other words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-.
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured in terms of a value known as pH, which is the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions:

pH = 1/log[H+] = -log[H+]

Acids and Bases

On the pH scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end, a solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At pH 7, water contains equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions. Substances with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because they contain a higher concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a change of one pH unit means a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions.

What is pH?

Living things are extremely sensitive to pH and function best (with certain exceptions, such as certain portions of the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly neutral. Most interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH of about 6.8.

Importance of balancing pH

Blood plasma and other fluids that surround the cells in the body have a pH of 7.2 to 7.3. Numerous special mechanisms aid in stabilizing these fluids so that cells will not be subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which serve as mechanisms to stabilize pH are called buffers. Buffers have the capacity to bond ions and remove them from solution whenever their concentration begins to rise. Conversely, buffers can release ions whenever their concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to minimize the fluctuations in pH. This is an important function because many biochemical reactions normally occurring in living organisms either release or use up ions.
NOTE: Dr. Hayashi is a Heart Specialist and Director of the Water Institute of Japan.

Oxygen: Too much of a good thing?

Oxygen is essential to survival. It is relatively stable in the air, but when too much is absorbed into the body it can become active and unstable and has a tendency to attach itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of healthy cells. The chemical activity of these free radicals is due to one or more pairs of unpaired electrons.

About 2% of the oxygen we normally breathe becomes active oxygen, and this amount increases to approximately 20% with aerobic exercise.

Such free radicals with unpaired electrons are unstable and have a high oxidation potential, which means they are capable of stealing electrons from other cells. This chemical mechanism is very useful in disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone which can be used to sterilize wounds or medical instruments. Inside the body these free radicals are of great benefit due to their ability to attack and eliminate bacteria, viruses and other waste products.

Active Oxygen in the body
Problems arise, however, when too many of these free radicals are turned loose in the body where they can also damage normal tissue.
Putrefaction sets in when microbes in the air invade the proteins, peptides, and amino acids of eggs, fish and meat. The result is an array of unpleasant substances such as:
Hydrogen sulfide
Ammonia
Histamines
Indoles
Phenols
Scatoles
These substances are also produced naturally in the digestive tract when we digest food, resulting in the unpleasant odor evidenced in feces. Putrefaction of spoiled food is caused by microbes in the air; this natural process is duplicated in the digestive tract by intestinal microbes. All these waste products of digestion are pathogenic, that is, they can cause disease in the body.

Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are tissue toxins that can damage the liver. Histamines contribute to allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria (hives) and asthma. Indoles and phenols are considered carcinogenic. Because waste products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, phenols and indoles are toxic, the body’s defense mechanisms try to eliminate them by releasing neutrophils (a type of leukocyte, or white corpuscle). These neutrophils produce active oxygen, oddball oxygen molecules that are capable of scavenging disintegrating tissues by gathering electrons from the molecules of toxic cells.

Problems arise, however, when too many of these active oxygen molecules, or free radicals, are produced in the body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them genetically. These active oxygen radicals steal electrons from normal, healthy biological molecules. This electron theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and can cause disease.

Because active oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is essential to scavenge this active oxygen from the body before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we can find an effective method to block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen, then we can attempt to prevent disease.

 

Antioxidants block dangerous oxidation

One way to protect healthy tissue from the ravages of oxidation caused by active oxygen is to provide free electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralizing their high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting with healthy tissue.

Research on the link between diet and cancer is far from complete, but some evidence indicates that what we eat may affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some foods seem to help defend against cancer, others appear to promote it.

Much of the damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food may come about because of an oxidation reaction in the cell. In this process, an oddball oxygen molecule may damage the genetic code of the cell. Some researchers believe that substances that prevent oxidation — called ANTIOXIDANTS — can block the damage. This leads naturally to the theory that the intake of natural antioxidants could be an important aspect of the body’s defense against cancer. Substances that some believe inhibit cancer include vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and gluthione (an amino acid). These substances are reducing agents. They supply electrons to free radicals and block the interaction of the free radical with normal tissue.

How we can avoid illness

As we mentioned earlier, the presence of toxic waste products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles impart an offensive odor to human feces. In the medical profession, it is well known that patients suffering from hepatitis and cirrhosis pass particularly odoriferous stools.

Excessively offensive stools caused by the presence of toxins are indicators of certain diseases, and the body responds to the presence of these toxins by producing neutrophil leukocytes to release active oxygen in an attempt to neutralize the damage to organs that can be caused by such waste products. But when an excess amount of such active oxygen is produced, it can damage healthy cells as well as neutralize toxins. This leads us to the conclusion that we can minimize the harmful effect of these active oxygen radicals by reducing them with an ample supply of electrons.

Water, the natural solution

There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in antioxidant materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen.

Water treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential is the best solution to the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is the best solution because:
The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements.
The molecule weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.

What is IONIZED WATER?

Ionized water is the product of mild electrolysis which takes place in the ionized water unit. The production of ionized water, its properties, and how it works in the human body are described in the next section. Ionized water is treated tap water that has not only been filtered, but has also been reformed in that it provides reduced water with a large mass of electrons that can be donated to active oxygen in the body to block the oxidation of normal cells.

 

THE IONIZED WATER UNIT
Tap water: What it is and isn’t

Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH scale of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Reduced Ionized Water, on the other hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -250 to -350 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen.

Before discussing the properties of Ionized Water further, let’s take a look at what happens inside an Ionized Water producing unit.

How an IONIZED WATER Unit works

The Ionized Water unit, slightly taller and thicker than a large dictionary on end, is an electrical appliance connected to your kitchen water supply to perform electrolysis on tap water before you drink it or use it in the kitchen for cooking or cleaning.

A special attachment re-directs tap water out of the faucet through a plastic hose into the Ionized Water unit. Inside the Ionized Water unit, the water is first filtered through activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes into an electrolysis chamber equipped with a platinum-coated titanium electrode where electrolysis takes place.

Cations, positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to create cathodic water (reduced water). Anions, negatively charged ions, gather at the positive electrode to make anodic water (oxidized water).

Through electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an excess amount of electrons (e-), but the cluster of H 2O seem to be reduced in size from about 10 to 13 molecules per cluster to 5 to 6 molecules per cluster.

The reduced water comes out of the faucet, and the oxidized water comes out of a separate hose leading into the sink. You can use the reduced water for drinking or cooking. The oxidation potential of the oxidized water makes it a good sterilizing agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or kitchen utensils, and treating minor wounds.

What the IONIZED WATER Unit Produces

Redox potential comparison

After electrolysis of the water inside the Ionized Water unit, reduced water comes out of the cathodic side and oxidized water comes out of the anodic side. Compare these measurements of these three types of water: tap water before electrolysis, the reduced water, and the oxidized water.

Redox potential, not pH, is the crucial factor

Traditionally we have judged the properties of water from the standpoint of pH, in other words whether water is acidic or alkaline. According to Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo PhD., the inventor of the Ionized Water unit, “In my opinion, redox potential is more important than pH. The importance of pH is over emphasized. For example, the average pH of blood is 7.4 and acidosis or alkalosis are defined according to deviation within the range of 7.4 +- 0.005. But nothing has been discussed about ORP, or oxidation-reduction potential.”

The pH of tap water is about pH 7, or neutral. When tap water is electrolyzed into Ionized Water, its reduced water has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of about 4. Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium hydroxide or make acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen chloride, you will find very little change in the ORP values of the two waters. On the other hand, when you divide tap water with electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as much as +- 1,000 mV. By electrolysis we can obtain reduced water with negative potential that is good for the body.

USING IONIZED WATER
What IONIZED WATER Does

The Ionized Water unit produces two kinds of water with different redox potentials, one with a high reduction potential and the other with a high oxidation potential.

Reduced Water

When taken internally, the reduced Ionized Water with its redox potential of -250 to -350 mV readily donates its electrons to oddball oxygen radicals and blocks the interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules.

A biological molecule (BM) remains intact and undamaged.

Undamaged biological molecules are less susceptible to infection and disease. Ionized Water gives up an extra electron and reduces the active oxygen (AO), thus rendering it harmless. The AO is reduced without damaging surrounding biological molecules. Substances which have the ability to counteract active oxygen by supplying electrons are called scavengers. Reduced water, therefore, can be called scavenging water.

When taken internally, the effects of reduced water are immediate. Ionized Water inhibits excessive fermentation in the digestive tract by reducing indirectly metabolites such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles, resulting in a cleaner stool within days after reduced water is taken on a regular basis. In 1965, the Ministry of Welfare of Japan announced that reduced water obtained from electrolysis can prevent abnormal fermentation of intestinal microbes.

Oxidized Water

Oxidized water with its redox potential of +700 to +800 mV is an oxidizing agent that can withdraw electrons from bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water from the Ionized Water unit can be used to clean hands, kitchen utensils, fresh vegetables and fruits, and to sterilize cutting boards and minor wounds. Tests have shown that oxidized water can be used effectively to treat athlete’s foot, minor burns, insect bites, scratches, and so on.

Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo, Vice Director of the Water Institute of Japan, has developed another apparatus capable of producing hyperoxidized water with a redox potential of +1,050 mV or more, and a pH lower than 2.7. Tests have shown that this hyper oxidized water can quickly destroy MRSA (Methecillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus).

Although hyperoxidized water is a powerful sterilizing agent, it won’t harm the skin. In fact, it can be used to heal. Hyperoxidized water has proven effective in Japanese hospitals in the treatment of bedsores and operative wounds with complicated infections.

But perhaps the most exciting future application of hyperoxidized water is in the field of agriculture where it has been used effectively on plants to kill fungi and other plant diseases. Hyperoxidized water is non-toxic, so agricultural workers can apply it without wearing special protective equipment because there is no danger of skin or respiratory damage. An added benefit of using hyperoxidized water to spray plants is that there is no danger to the environment caused by the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the ground.

Ionized Water superior to antioxidant diet

Today we read much about correct dieting principles and paying attention to what we eat in order to stay healthy. This is a sensible practice, but it is surprising that many of us don’t realize that the bulk of what eat is composed of water. Vegetables and fruits are 90% water; fish and meat are about 70% water as well.

Even advocates of the importance of vitamin C in diet staples have to admit that its potency, namely, the redox potential of this important vitamin, rapidly diminishes with age and preparation for the dining table. Carbohydrates, the main consistent of vegetables and fruit, has a molecular weight of 180 whereas water has a much lower molecular weight of 18.

Ionized Water, with its low molecular weight and high reduction potential, makes it a superior scavenging agent of active oxygen. But electrolysis inside the Ionized Water unit not only charges the reduced water with electrons, it also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters.

NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap water and well water consists of clusters of 10 to 13 H2 0 molecules. Electrolysis of water in the Ionized Water unit reduces these clusters to about half their normal size — 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster.

As the graph shows, the NMR signal that measures cluster size by line width at half-amplitude shows 65 Hz for reduced water and 133 Hz for tap water, revealing that the reduced water clusters are approximately half the size of tap water clusters.

This is why Ionized Water is more readily absorbed by the body than untreated tap water. Ionized Water quickly permeates the body and blocks the oxidation of biological molecules by donating its abundant electrons to active oxygen, enabling biological molecules to replace themselves naturally without damage caused by oxidation that can cause diseases.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Upstream and downstream theory

Prevent disease at the source

According to Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, Director of the Water Institute of Japan, “To eliminate the pollutants in a large stream that is contaminated at its source, we must work on the problems upstream at the headwaters — the source of the pollution — not downstream where we can only try to treat the evidence of damage caused by the pollution. Ionized Water’s contribution to preventive medicine is essentially upstream treatment.”

Upstream

According to our model, we consider the digestive tract upstream where we intake water and food. Although many people today in developed countries are growing more skeptical about what they eat, they tend to concentrate more on what the food contains rather than the metabolized products of foods in the digestive tract.

Upstream

For example, consider the typical balanced diet of meat and vegetables. Meat protein is metabolized into amines while nitrates from fertilizers used to grow vegetables metabolize into nitrites in the digestive tract. These amines and nitrites combine to form nitrosamine, a recognized carcinogen.
We’ve already discussed that odoriferous feces are evidence of excessive fermentation in the digestive tract, so reduced water performs a very important function upstream in the digestive tract by reducing this excessive fermentation as evidenced by cleaner stools within days of starting a steady regimen of reduced water.

 

 

Downstream

Downstream

Downstream from the digestive tract, starting at the liver, reduced water quickly enters the liver and other organs due to, first, its lower molecular weight, and, secondly, the size of its clusters. At tissue sites throughout the body, reduced water with its safe, yet potent reduction potential readily donates its passenger electrons freely to active oxygen and neutralizes them so they cannot damage the molecules of healthy cells. Normal cells are protected from the electron thievery of active oxygen and allowed to grow, mature, function and regenerate without interference from rogue, oddball oxygen radicals which tend to steal the electrons from the molecules of normal, healthy biological molecules.

The water boom

We are now in the midst of a water boom. In Japan and other countries consumers are buying various kinds of bottled and canned water even though water is one of our most abundant vital resources. Research data reveals that mineral waters have an ORP of +200 mV, slightly lower than the +400 mV measured for ordinary tap water. We can say that at least mineral water is marginally better than tap water from the viewpoint of ORP. Compared to any processed water for sale, however, Ionized Water with its reduction potential of -250 to -300 mV is beyond comparison due to its ability to scavenge active oxygen radicals.

By Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, M.D.
Director, Water Institute of Japan
Nisshin Building, 2-5-10 Shinjiku,
Shinjiku-ku, Tokyo, Japan 160

Why Drink Alkaline Ionized Water?
The Basics
by Dr. Hayashi

Ionized Alkaline Water

We all know that water is essential for life. Water contains vital minerals that we need to stay healthy and strong and the hydrating effects of water can help us lose weight, maintain health, reduce disease, reduce the occurrence of headaches, and improve our overall wellness. But when you reach for a glass of water, do you give any thought to what you are drinking?

Well, you should… Read: Techincal information on Alkaline Ionised Water (the other tab on this page)

Studies are showing that our bodies need a variety of things from water… and frankly, we just aren’t getting them.

Even water run through various treatment methods can be ineffective at killing bacteria or cleaning out impurities… and some of them even take out the good things we need in water!

So when you choose water to drink, how do you know which water is the best water for you? After all, there are so many water purification methods out there that it is difficult to know which one is actually providing the best water.

You can start by asking these questions:

Water Purity:

How free is the water of contaminants and impurities?

While most municipal water systems in civilised Western countries are free of harmful bacteria, they are by no means free of chemical residues, heavy metals, chlorine by-products, and other micro organisms.

Alkalinity:

Is the water alkaline enough to help balance our bodies’ tissues – which are already overly acidic?

This is measured by a simple “pH” test.

Water oxidation:

Does the water have an oxidizing or anti-oxidant effect on the body?

Oxidants speed up cell degeneration while antioxidants prevent it. The standard here is the water found in quick flowing mountain streams – a natural antioxidant. The antioxidant property of water is measured with an O.R.P. meter (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential).

Mineral Content:

Healthy water should contain many minerals, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and trace elements. These are vital to a healthy life.

However…

Our bodies need fewer contaminants and bacteria than we’re getting.

Our bodies need water that is more alkaline than we’re getting.

Our water needs to be anti-oxidizing… and we’re not getting that either.

And our water needs to be a source of minerals, but many common water treatment systems strip those minerals from the water!

Some common types of purified water:

Municipal (tap) water contains various contaminants in levels permitted by the local authority, with overall guidelines set by the national and local governments and water authorities. However, in South Africa and other developing countries these are very poorly monitored and very seldom adhered to, resulting in extremely high levels of contamination in most cases. Tap water can range from acid to neutral to mildly alkaline (pH 4.3-7.5), which means it can either add further acidity to the body, or in some cases be very mildly neutralizing. Municipal tap water has no antioxidant properties, in fact is strongly oxidizing. Any antioxidant properties that may have been present in its original natural sources have been dissipated through contact with environmental pollutants, metal pipes, and the municipal treatment process.

Home Filtration Systems / Filters

There are two broad categories: mechanical filtration and fine filtration. In mechanical filtration, water is passed through a fine strainer to remove particles of sand, suspended dirt, rust and scale. These are trapped by the filter, improving the clarity and appeal of water Fine filtration is generally of two types: activated carbon (charcoal) or ceramic. There is an enormous range of quality, from inexpensive tap-mounted or pitcher to high-end filters costing thousands of Rand

Activated carbon (charcoal)

Activated Carbon filters account for most of the filters sold domestically, since they are inexpensive and simple to install. They can remove Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and varying amounts of chlorine products, as well as sour taste and bad odors. However, depending on the type of carbon used, they may leave heavy metals – such as arsenic, copper and lead, as well as volatile organic compounds. If a carbon filter is not changed regularly, it can become a breeding ground for bacteria, and stop being effective against the removal of trihalomethanes (a chlorine by-product).

Pitcher type/Pour-through filters:

Most reduce only a small number of organic contaminants.

Limited water volumes.

Frequent filter change is required.

Ceramic filters:

Ceramic materials are compressed into a densely packed arrangement, blocking the migration of particles smaller than 0.2 to 0.3 microns. These are useful for removing bacteria from unsafe water supplies, asbestos and cysts. However, ceramic filters cannot reduce volatile organic compounds, trihalomethanes, mercury or lead. Filtration does not significantly affect the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the source water, likewise, it is oxidizing; there are no antioxidant properties in filtered water.

Bottled Water

Many people swear by bottled water as an alternative to their tap water. But there is a huge variety in quality. Bottled water includes many labels: spring, prepared, artesian, mineral, drinking, purified, filtered, demineralized, distilled and others. Researchers estimate that 25% or more of bottled water is actually bottled tap water, “sometimes further treated, sometimes not.” (The “further” treatment generally consists of carbon filtration and/or ozonation. Ozonation is a process whereby ozone is used instead of chlorine to kill microbes.)

This is known as prepared water.

Spring water

Spring water is derived from an underground formation naturally flowing to the surface. It must be collected only at the spring. Most commercial spring water undergoes filtering or purifying processes before bottling and therefore does not retain minerals.

Mineral water

Mineral water contains no less than 500 ppm (parts per million) dissolved mineral solids. The dissolved minerals must be present at source and may include calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluoride, sodium, silica, chlorides, bicarbonates, sulphanates and iron.

No minerals may be added to this water.

Demineralized water

Demineralized water generally refers to treatment by reverse osmosis (RO).

Although Reverse Osmosis is effective in removing bacteria and viruses, it is not recommended that you rely on it solely if your water is contaminated with bacteria and viruses. In that case, ultraviolet treatment should be added.

RO systems can under certain conditions act as intensive breeding ground for bacteria. In addition, reverse osmosis water is de-mineralized. It provides no calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium or trace elements to the body. Because of this, mineral supplements are sometimes recommended.

Unfortunately, reverse osmosis creates water that is highly acidic and oxidizing. Therefore it is not recommended for long-term drinking. According to Zoltan P. Rona MD, “Because it is free of dissolved minerals, it has the special property of being able to actively absorb toxic substances from the body and eliminate them. Fasting using (RO) water can be dangerous because of the rapid loss of electrolytes and trace minerals, deficiencies of which can cause heart beat irregularities and high blood pressure. RO water is an active absorber and when it comes into contact with air, it absorbs carbon dioxide, making it acidic…Cells, tissues and organs do not like to be dipped in acid and will do anything to buffer this acidity including the removal of minerals from the skeleton and the manufacture of bicarbonate in the blood.”

However, all is not lost…

NatureZone Ionised Mineral Water is pure, natural water drawn from a pristine well deep below the earth’s surface in the beautiful, unspoilt Caversham Valley in the KZN Midlands. This mineral-rich water is naturally filtered by Mother Nature through 145 metres of shale and earth, and due to the crystal-clear quality of our water, absolutely no filtration whatsoever is required or used in our bottling process.

It then passes through a magnetic vortex ionisation process, before being energised at a frequency of 528Hz (the frequency at which DNA heals or regenerates itself), after which it passes through the Colloidal Silver Ionisation Vessel, where the main ionisation process occurs.

This resultant structured water, treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential, provides a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that our reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is an excellent solution because:

1. The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements.

2. The molecular weight of ionic water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.

The above processes not only charge the reduced water with electrons, it also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters. NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap water consists of clusters of 18 to 20 H20 molecules and well water 13 to 15 molecules.

Electrolysis, or ionisation of water in our structured Ionised Water reduces these clusters to 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster, which obviously vastly improves antioxidant and electrolytic properties, and the resultant healing and re-hydration benefits.

This is fantastic news for athletes, and many top athletes are now experiencing the (legal) advantages of ionised alkaline water, with amazing results. A cyclist or adventure racer for example, using ionised water, would need to only carry a third of what he/she would have needed previously with normal bottled water.

Post-race re-hydration is also dramatically improved with the extra electrolytic effectiveness, and the antioxidant properties help with flushing toxins and lactic acid build-up from the body, ensuring a much quicker recovery period.

Another huge benefit is the Alkalinity that results from the ionisation process. The pH of Ionised water changes as a result, and becomes alkaline. Bad diets, including meat and potatoes, fried foods, refined bread, soft drink colas and sugars, build up acid salts in the body. Often these deposits, by having to be stored away from the blood flow, can remain in the body for decades. Stress, both mental and physical, can create acid deposits in the body. Mental stress can also make you feel depressed. Doctors in Japan, following more than forty years of research and testing, believe that daily drinking of alkaline water, besides the normal documented benefits, can also lift depression.

Alkaline electrolytic water is also an excellent long term treatment for a lot of diseases including the organs ie heart, liver, kidneys, lungs and therefore every complaint affected by these, it can also destroy cancer tumours. It is probably the best anti-aging substance as it is antioxidant and much more available to the body cells due to the low molecular structure, than vegetables, fruit, or herbs. It removes plaque, cholesteral, fat etc. from the arterial tubes, reducing high blood pressure, angina and heart attacks through artherosclerosis

Arthritis And Alkaline Water

Uric acid is nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether, but soluble in solutions of alkaline salts. In other words, it becomes soluble in alkaline water. Arthritis and gout are caused by uric acid deposited between the joints, non-dissolved due to the low alkalinity of an older person’s blood. Drinking acid free alkaline water will gradually elevate one’s blood pH and the gout will disappear naturally.

As we live with poor waste disposal systems for a long period of time, some parts of our body build up more acids than others, and they can clog up capillary vessels around those acidic areas. This causes some body organs to function in a sluggish manner. We feel tired and run down sometimes for no reason whatsoever, and adult diseases such as high blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, allergies, etc. start to set in.

Alkaline water can alleviate this to a large degree.

Kidney And Bladder Problems

As the body consumes toxins, the kidneys become over burdened with acid wastes. Nephritis, uremia poisoning, and bladder problems are all acid related conditions which can be treated by the consumption of alkaline water. Kidney stones begin as tiny specks and they gradually build into solid stones, composed of phosphates, urates and others. They are another form of acidic salts. Drinking plenty of alkaline water will prevent kidney stones from forming, and even after their formation, it can dissolve them. Japanese doctors have used alkaline water for years to treat the kidneys.

Illnesses Treated/Improved By Alkaline Electrolytic Water

High blood pressure; Dehydration; Arthritis; Acidosis; Acne; Colic; Candida yeast; Thrush; Kidney problems; Liver problems; Gall Stones and Kidney stones; Lowers blood sugar; Ties up Free Radicals; Powerful Antioxidant; Obesity (Assists Weight loss); Diabetes; Constipation; Poor Circulation; High Cholesterol

NatureZone Ionised water which is alkaline and electrolytic with its low molecular weight, smaller molecule clusters and scavenging ability, is a better antioxidant than anything else as it is more available to the cells of the body, and you are able to, and should, drink plenty of it. The other immense advantage is the alkalinity of the water and its ability to flush out the body systems of the fatty acid build ups which cause obesity, artherosclerosis, heart and stroke problems, cancer, arthritis and a whole host of other ailments

The benefits of NatureZone Ionised Water

Ionised water hydrates up to 6 times more effectively than tap water

Ionised water is a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger

Ionised water provides dissolved oxygen throughout the body for energy and vitality

Ionised water promotes bowel regularity

Ionised water improves nutrient uptake

Ionised water acts as a detox by washing acidic waste from the body

Ionised water alkalinises the body

In addition, our NatureZone Structured Water is also energised at 528Hz – (the frequency at which DNA heals itself) AND magnetically ionised.

This imparts incredible healing properties to the water (for more information, browse “Solfeggio Frequencies”).

Expanding a New Scientific View Of the Functional Properties of Water

Functional water is water that has been exposed to external energy fields. This includes electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic (infrared, microwave, nuclear), ultrasound, and vortex implosion. The most widely used energy sources to make functional water are electrolysis and magnetic fields. The most scientifically studied functional water process is electrolysis.

The following is a report from the Waterlife Conference, November 2, 2001, Columbia University, New York City. © 2001 Bruce L. Erickson and Richard A. Wullaert, Ph.D.

Holistic Approach to Water

The current focus on water treatment is on what shouldn’t be in the water. This assumes that the removal of “bad’ things in water will make the water good (i.e., have a positive health benefit). From an historical point of view, this may be true, except some of the techniques/chemicals used to remove the “bad” things may add new components that reduce the health benefits of the water. Thus, the current concern for the toxic byproducts of chlorine disinfection. The wholistic approach would be to consider what negative functions we are adding to water in our effort to remove or reduce existing components (microbes, toxins, chemicals, etc.) that produce negative functions. The next thing is to consider what we can do to water to produce positive functions. Another way to use the wholistic approach to water is to be concerned with what role the solvent (water) plays in the effectiveness of what’s in it (solutes).

Microbiologist has long recognized the import role that biological water plays in the formation of cell membranes, enzymes, and even DNA. Water restructures itself to accommodate biological processes [1]. Thus, nature shows us that altering the structure and properties of the water can have significant effects on what can be accomplished by what is in the water.

Functional Water

There is Functional Medicine and Functional Food, so why not Functional Water. Functional (or Structured)water can be defined as water that produces a positive health benefit. If we look at the basic functions of water in the body, such as solvent, lubricant, nutrient delivery, waste removal, and most of all, enabling almost all key biological processes (i.e., life), it is clear that water produces a positive health benefit. One example of an historical version of structured water is the mineral water used at spas for internal and external health benefits. Another example is the addition of fluorides to drinking water, which is supposed to produce a positive dental benefit (when calcium fluoride is used, not sodium fluoride, which is the chemical used mostly by local water companies). Not everyone agrees that fluoride in any form is beneficial.

If we want to see the health benefits of water, just look at what the lack of sufficient water in the body (dehydration) can cause [2]:

• Increased risk of kidney stones.

• Increased risk of urinary tract cancers.

• Increased risk of colon cancer.

• Increased risk of breast cancer.

Some people feel that many of our health problems are due to chronic dehydration, and that proper hydration alone would cure many of our common diseases [3].

It is clear that water has medicinal and functional value. The key issue is what state should the water be in to provide the optimal medicinal and functional value. Unaltered source water from deep wells or protected springs would be a good start, but there are very few sources of water that are not treated by chemicals such as chlorine, ozone, and other chemicals. Thus, we should consider new treatment concepts that may restore or improve the medicinal/functional properties of conventionally treated water.

The historical way that functional water is produced is for nature or man to add minerals.

Recently, man has decided to make aquaceuticals. That is, water with nutraceuticals (vitamins, herbs, minerals, etc.) that presumably produce a health benefit. Note that in all these cases, water is just the carrier (solvent) and the health benefits are assumed to come from the additives (solutes). Now what if the properties of the solvent (water) could be altered so that it contributed synergistically or catalytically to improve the health benefits of the solutes. This approach to making functional water has been actively pursued in recent years, particularly in Japan and Russia.

The Japanese Functional Water Foundation defines structured water as water that has been exposed to external energy fields. This includes electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic (infrared, microwave, nuclear), ultrasound, and vortex implosion. The most widely used energy sources to make functional water are electrolysis and magnetic fields. The most scientifically studied functional water process is electrolysis.

Electrolyzed Alkaline Water

The Japanese and Russians have used electrolysis in combination with ion separation to produce functional waters with a wide range of beneficial properties for over 200 applications [4, 5].

For example, since 1966 the Japanese have been drinking ionised alkaline water to increase and enhance calcium absorption. Approximately 15 million Japanese now drink this water. The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare has certified that alkaline ionised water (a reducing water) assists in the alleviation of gastrointestinal disorders, acidosis, chronic diarrhea, and poor digestion. This same water is used in agriculture for enhancing plant growth. The acid electrolyzed water (an oxidizing water) that is produced by the same process [6] (and at the same time) is used as a disinfectant and pesticide.

Recent research in Japan has shown that ionised alkaline drinking water has a synergistic effect on antioxidants. For example, the antioxidant strength of vitamin C in electrolyzed alkaline water is several times greater than vitamin C in tap water. The synergistic effect is due to the higher dissociation/ionization constant of the functional (electrolyzed) water [7].

Other studies have shown that ionised water produces antioxidant behavior and protects DNA from free radical damage [8]. Clinical studies have shown that mice fed electrolyzed alkaline water lived 30% longer. This structured water enhanced the immune system and inhibited autoimmune disease [9].

Future Applications

There are many applications for structured water. Most of them have been subjected to limited testing and verification. A few of them have been extensively tested and are widely used outside the U.S. (human and animal drinking water, plant growth, food processing, disinfectant, pesticide). Based on this database, here are some possible future uses of functional water (used in the generic sense) in areas of interest to WaterLife.

Use functional water for drinking to enhance the health benefits of nutrients in the water or taken with the water (humans and animals).

Use functional water in cooking to improve the flavor and the nutritional value of foods.

Use functional water for plant growth so that nutrients are more absorbable and less water is required.

Use functional water for disinfection (water, food processing, medical and mouthwash).

Use functional water for skin problems (dermatitis, bruises, burns, bed sores).

Use functional water to reduce gastrointestinal problems (diarrhea, constipation).

References

[1] Westhof, E.; Water and Biological Macromolecules, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993. [2] Kleiner, S.; Water: An Essential but Overlooked Nutrient, J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc. 99 (1999) 200.[3] Batmanghelidj, F.; Your Body’s Many Cries for Water, Global Health Solutions, Falls Church, VA, 1992.[4] Proceedings of the Functional Water Symposiums, (1994 – 2000), Tokyo, Japan.[5] Bakhir, V.; Electrochemical Activation, 2 vol., All-Russian Institute for Medical Engineering, Moscow, 1992.[6] Kumon, K.; What is Functional Water, Artif. Organs 21(1997) 2.[7] Hanaoka, K.; Antioxidant Effects of Reduced Water Produced by Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride Solutions, (to be published in J Applied Electrochemistry, 2001).[8] Shirahata, S., et al: Electrolyzed-Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protect DNA from Oxidative Damage, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 234 (1997) 269.[9] Fernandes, G.; Effect of Electrolyzed Water Intake on Lifespan of Autoimmune Disease Prone Mice, FASEB Journal 12 (1998) A794.

The following is another article by the clinical nutritionist:

Dr. David Parker DIP ION, DIP EAV, Clinical Nutritionist, Electro-acupuncturist, Live Blood Analyst, Magnetic Field Therapist and BEST System Consultant.

www.stepstoperfecthealth.co.uk

“Today’s environment is not the best for our health, to put it mildly. The advert where the guy buys water sachets for large sums of money is not as far fetched as it seems when you consider water supplies and the chemicals that are put in or leach into the water supplies. So what can people do to try and maintain their health within a toxic environment?

One of the best ways is by drinking Ionised Alkalised Water. They could take supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, allopathic medicines to name but a few ways of trying to maintain their health, but are the supplements and remedies being absorbed?

All treatments need one thing for them to have a chance of working, in whatever way they are designed to work, and that is a fluid medium. This fluid is WATER, not tea, coffee or any other beverage that you could name, just WATER. In theory the average adult has approximately 10 gallons of water in their body.

Today’s society is in danger of becoming “brainwashed” if they believe the water supplies are OK with the chemicals that are added and that leach into them. Have you ever thought about the quality of the water that you are drinking and, just as importantly, the amount of quality water you are drinking?

All tap water has at least chlorine in it, in order to sterilise the water, some supplies have fluoride as well. In some areas the water supply is recycled urine with chemicals added.

Eating a vegetarian diet is a way of starting to Alkalise, that is why people who have had ill health feel better on a vegetarian diet. The foods are primarily Alkaline and usually have a higher water content. However, most peoples fluid intake is still 50% Acid and 50% Alkaline, even bottled or filtered water is still at best a neutral pH which = 50% acid and 50% alkaline.

Distilled water or reverse osmosis water leaches out minerals (see science section by Zolton). So unless you stay on a vegetarian diet and start to stabilise the environment you will still revert back to an overall acidic environment, most beverages including some herbal teas are acidic. This will reverse the balance that you are trying to establish back to acidity, unless your beverage is an alkalised beverage. It makes logical sense to drink alkaline water, as our body is approximately 80% water and needs alkalising as well as hydrating properly. Acidity causes “dryness”, this can be seen in conditions such as arthritis, skin problems, constipation, the list goes on and on. Alkaline ion water attracts the “acidic ions” and carries them out of the body, if you drink enough alkaline water.

Remember most water is 50 / 50, which makes the water a neutral pH, not alkaline

Healthy cells live in an alkaline environment. Unhealthy cells live in an Acid accumulated waste environment. The nearest that you can get to spring water is alkalised water because that’s what it is, it is not purified water as some people would have you believe.

Osteopaths, Chiropractors, Physiotherapists, Physical therapists most of the treatments are focused on normalising joint and tissue function, they do this by mobilisation of the associated tissues and joints. What is the objective of the mobilisation, to get more lubrication and movement coming into the area because it has become “dry”? Why do these areas exist, because the environment is acidic! Where does the lubrication come from, water, so are these people drinking enough of the right type of water, I think not!

Nutrition – one of the main problems with assimilating nutrition is “acidity” either not enough or too much in digestion. How does alkaline water affect this, by providing the stomach mucosa with water so that it can excrete the right amount of hydrochloric acid for food digestion? Alkaline water does not neutralise the stomach acid, because there is no acid present until you have eaten. The water is needed and absorbed by the stomach mucosa in order to make the right amount of hydrochloric acid.

As an ideal, you should not drink at all with your meals, this upsets the acid balance in the stomach and so the breakdown of foods. So why do people take an ANTI-ACID with their meals, when all they need to do is drink alkalised water before their meal, it does not make sense? 1 glass of alkalised water is equal to 3 glasses of ordinary or bottled water in its hydration capability. Because of its high hydration capability alkaline water also provides the Pancreas and Gall Bladder with the ability to neutralise the acid / food mix coming from the stomach into the duodenum and small intestine so that it will not damage or “burn” it.

One area called peyers patches has a lot to do with the immune system and can be damaged by this acidic mixture. If we do not neutralise these acidic contents from the stomach with alkaline then we have the makings of an acid environment, which in turn causes indigestion, malabsorption, heat, inflammation and other ensuing problems.

A water ioniser has two chambers one is a positive chamber and the other is a negative chamber. Alkaline minerals in tap water are electrically positive. Acid minerals in tap water are electrically negative. As water passes into the ioniser these minerals are mixed together until they pass over the chambers. The positive minerals are attracted into the negative electrode chamber. The negative minerals are attracted into the positive electrode chamber.

This is how the ioniser basically separates the water into Acid and Alkaline water, so you get two from one so to speak. It also essentially tells us why reverse osmosis and distillation are not good for us on a long-term basis, as there are no minerals in the water obtained from these units. When you drink this type of water it “leaches” the minerals from your body. Some ions are not good for us because they are acidic, these ions are separated in the ionisation process from the alkaline water so that you are not drinking them, only beneficial mineral ions are in alkalised water.

Bacteria cannot survive in alkaline calcium ion water, however they can in ordinary tap water, unless it is boiled and even after boiling the water will at least still contain some dead bacteria and chemicals

Reverse osmosis filters (RO) remove everything from the water, including any minerals that might have been present, leaving a mineral depleted water that is free of dissolved minerals.

It has the special property of being able to actively absorb toxic substances from the body and eliminate them. Fasting using (RO) water can be dangerous because of the rapid loss of electrolytes and trace minerals, deficiencies of which can cause heart beat irregularities and high blood pressure. RO water is an active absorber and when it comes into contact with air, it absorbs carbon dioxide, making it acidic. Cells, tissues and organs do not like to be dipped in acid and will do anything to buffer this acidity including the removal of minerals from the skeleton and the manufacture of bicarbonate in the blood.

Some filtration systems will also remove certain bacteria as well as chemicals, but they will not alkalise the water. There are no filtration units that remove fluoride completely; fluoride can only be removed completely by distillation. Purified water is not alkalised water e.g. reverse osmosis and distilled water.”

Compiled by: David Parker DIP ION, DIP EAV, Clinical Nutritionist, Electro-acupuncturist, Live Blood Analyst, Magnetic Field Therapist and BEST System Consultant.

www.stepstoperfecthealth.co.uk

+ Technical Information

Water

Water, The chemistry of life

Whenever we attempt to determine whether there is life as we know it on Mars or other planets, scientists first seek to establish whether or not water is present. Why? Because life on earth totally depends on water.

A High percentage of living things, both plant and animal are found in water. All life on earth is thought to have arisen from water. The bodies of all living organisms are composed largely of water. About 70 to 90 percent of all organic matter is water.

The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that support life take place in a water medium. Water not only provides the medium to make these life sustaining reactions possible, but water itself is often an important reactant or product of these reactions. In short, the chemistry of life is water chemistry.

Water, the universal solvent

Water is a universal, superb solvent due to the marked polarity of the water molecule and its tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water molecule, expressed with the chemical symbol H2O, consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.

Standing alone, the hydrogen atom contains one positive proton at its core with one negative electron revolving around it in a three-dimensional shell. Oxygen, on the other hand, contains 8 protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons revolving around it. This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter O surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of paired electrons.

The single hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen are the key to the chemistry of life because this is where hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a water molecule, or split to form ions.

Hydrogen tends to ionize by losing its single electron and form single H+ ions, which are simply isolated protons since the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A hydrogen bond occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared with another electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks an electron.

Polarity of water molecules

In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom. But because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen’s, its attraction for the hydrogen’s electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are drawn closer into the shell of the larger oxygen atom and away from the hydrogen shells. This means that although the water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative charge.

The shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the oxygen, take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules have a tendency to form weak bonds with water molecules because the oxygen end of the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive.

A hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own molecule, can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends of other molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a continuous chemical entity.

These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the shape of many of the large molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak, they are readily broken and re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The disassembly and re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the chemistry of life.

To illustrate water’s ability to break down other substances, consider the simple example of putting a small amount of table salt in a glass of tap water. With dry salt (NaCl) the attraction between the electropositive sodium (Na+) and electronegative chlorine (Cl-) atoms of salt is very strong until it is placed in water. After salt is placed in water, the attraction of the electronegative oxygen of the water molecule for the positively charged sodium ions, and the similar attraction of the electropositive hydrogen ends of the water molecule for the negatively charged chloride ions, are greater than the mutual attraction between the outnumbered Na+ and Cl- ions. In water the ionic bonds of the sodium chloride molecule are broken easily because of the competitive action of the numerous water molecules.

As we can see from this simple example, even the delicate configuration of individual water molecules enables them to break relatively stronger bonds by converging on them. This is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a natural solution that breaks the bonds of larger, more complex molecules. This is the chemistry of life on earth, in water and on land.

Oxidation-reduction reactions

Basically, reduction means the addition of an electron (e-), and its converse, oxidation means the removal of an electron. The addition of an electron, reduction, stores energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an electron, oxidation, liberates energy from the oxidized compound. Whenever one substance is reduced, another is oxidized.

To clarify these terms, consider any two molecules, A and B, for example.

When molecules A and B come into contact, here is what happens:

B grabs an electron from molecule A.

Molecule A has been oxidized because it has lost an electron.

The net charge of B has been reduced because it has gained a negative electron (e-).

In biological systems, removal or addition of an electron constitutes the most frequent mechanism of oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction reactions are frequently called redox reactions.

An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in water. A base is a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in other words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-.
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured in terms of a value known as pH, which is the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions:

pH = 1/log[H+] = -log[H+]

Acids and Bases

On the pH scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end, a solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At pH 7, water contains equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions. Substances with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because they contain a higher concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a change of one pH unit means a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions.

What is pH?

Living things are extremely sensitive to pH and function best (with certain exceptions, such as certain portions of the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly neutral. Most interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH of about 6.8.

Importance of balancing pH

Blood plasma and other fluids that surround the cells in the body have a pH of 7.2 to 7.3. Numerous special mechanisms aid in stabilizing these fluids so that cells will not be subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which serve as mechanisms to stabilize pH are called buffers. Buffers have the capacity to bond ions and remove them from solution whenever their concentration begins to rise. Conversely, buffers can release ions whenever their concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to minimize the fluctuations in pH. This is an important function because many biochemical reactions normally occurring in living organisms either release or use up ions.
NOTE: Dr. Hayashi is a Heart Specialist and Director of the Water Institute of Japan.

Oxygen: Too much of a good thing?

Oxygen is essential to survival. It is relatively stable in the air, but when too much is absorbed into the body it can become active and unstable and has a tendency to attach itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of healthy cells. The chemical activity of these free radicals is due to one or more pairs of unpaired electrons.

About 2% of the oxygen we normally breathe becomes active oxygen, and this amount increases to approximately 20% with aerobic exercise.

Such free radicals with unpaired electrons are unstable and have a high oxidation potential, which means they are capable of stealing electrons from other cells. This chemical mechanism is very useful in disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone which can be used to sterilize wounds or medical instruments. Inside the body these free radicals are of great benefit due to their ability to attack and eliminate bacteria, viruses and other waste products.

Active Oxygen in the body
Problems arise, however, when too many of these free radicals are turned loose in the body where they can also damage normal tissue.
Putrefaction sets in when microbes in the air invade the proteins, peptides, and amino acids of eggs, fish and meat. The result is an array of unpleasant substances such as:
Hydrogen sulfide
Ammonia
Histamines
Indoles
Phenols
Scatoles
These substances are also produced naturally in the digestive tract when we digest food, resulting in the unpleasant odor evidenced in feces. Putrefaction of spoiled food is caused by microbes in the air; this natural process is duplicated in the digestive tract by intestinal microbes. All these waste products of digestion are pathogenic, that is, they can cause disease in the body.

Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are tissue toxins that can damage the liver. Histamines contribute to allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria (hives) and asthma. Indoles and phenols are considered carcinogenic. Because waste products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, phenols and indoles are toxic, the body’s defense mechanisms try to eliminate them by releasing neutrophils (a type of leukocyte, or white corpuscle). These neutrophils produce active oxygen, oddball oxygen molecules that are capable of scavenging disintegrating tissues by gathering electrons from the molecules of toxic cells.

Problems arise, however, when too many of these active oxygen molecules, or free radicals, are produced in the body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them genetically. These active oxygen radicals steal electrons from normal, healthy biological molecules. This electron theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and can cause disease.

Because active oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is essential to scavenge this active oxygen from the body before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we can find an effective method to block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen, then we can attempt to prevent disease.

 

Antioxidants block dangerous oxidation

One way to protect healthy tissue from the ravages of oxidation caused by active oxygen is to provide free electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralizing their high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting with healthy tissue.

Research on the link between diet and cancer is far from complete, but some evidence indicates that what we eat may affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some foods seem to help defend against cancer, others appear to promote it.

Much of the damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food may come about because of an oxidation reaction in the cell. In this process, an oddball oxygen molecule may damage the genetic code of the cell. Some researchers believe that substances that prevent oxidation — called ANTIOXIDANTS — can block the damage. This leads naturally to the theory that the intake of natural antioxidants could be an important aspect of the body’s defense against cancer. Substances that some believe inhibit cancer include vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and gluthione (an amino acid). These substances are reducing agents. They supply electrons to free radicals and block the interaction of the free radical with normal tissue.

How we can avoid illness

As we mentioned earlier, the presence of toxic waste products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles impart an offensive odor to human feces. In the medical profession, it is well known that patients suffering from hepatitis and cirrhosis pass particularly odoriferous stools.

Excessively offensive stools caused by the presence of toxins are indicators of certain diseases, and the body responds to the presence of these toxins by producing neutrophil leukocytes to release active oxygen in an attempt to neutralize the damage to organs that can be caused by such waste products. But when an excess amount of such active oxygen is produced, it can damage healthy cells as well as neutralize toxins. This leads us to the conclusion that we can minimize the harmful effect of these active oxygen radicals by reducing them with an ample supply of electrons.

Water, the natural solution

There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in antioxidant materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen.

Water treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential is the best solution to the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is the best solution because:
The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements.
The molecule weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.

What is IONIZED WATER?

Ionized water is the product of mild electrolysis which takes place in the ionized water unit. The production of ionized water, its properties, and how it works in the human body are described in the next section. Ionized water is treated tap water that has not only been filtered, but has also been reformed in that it provides reduced water with a large mass of electrons that can be donated to active oxygen in the body to block the oxidation of normal cells.

 

THE IONIZED WATER UNIT
Tap water: What it is and isn’t

Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH scale of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Reduced Ionized Water, on the other hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -250 to -350 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen.

Before discussing the properties of Ionized Water further, let’s take a look at what happens inside an Ionized Water producing unit.

How an IONIZED WATER Unit works

The Ionized Water unit, slightly taller and thicker than a large dictionary on end, is an electrical appliance connected to your kitchen water supply to perform electrolysis on tap water before you drink it or use it in the kitchen for cooking or cleaning.

A special attachment re-directs tap water out of the faucet through a plastic hose into the Ionized Water unit. Inside the Ionized Water unit, the water is first filtered through activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes into an electrolysis chamber equipped with a platinum-coated titanium electrode where electrolysis takes place.

Cations, positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to create cathodic water (reduced water). Anions, negatively charged ions, gather at the positive electrode to make anodic water (oxidized water).

Through electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an excess amount of electrons (e-), but the cluster of H 2O seem to be reduced in size from about 10 to 13 molecules per cluster to 5 to 6 molecules per cluster.

The reduced water comes out of the faucet, and the oxidized water comes out of a separate hose leading into the sink. You can use the reduced water for drinking or cooking. The oxidation potential of the oxidized water makes it a good sterilizing agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or kitchen utensils, and treating minor wounds.

What the IONIZED WATER Unit Produces

Redox potential comparison

After electrolysis of the water inside the Ionized Water unit, reduced water comes out of the cathodic side and oxidized water comes out of the anodic side. Compare these measurements of these three types of water: tap water before electrolysis, the reduced water, and the oxidized water.

Redox potential, not pH, is the crucial factor

Traditionally we have judged the properties of water from the standpoint of pH, in other words whether water is acidic or alkaline. According to Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo PhD., the inventor of the Ionized Water unit, “In my opinion, redox potential is more important than pH. The importance of pH is over emphasized. For example, the average pH of blood is 7.4 and acidosis or alkalosis are defined according to deviation within the range of 7.4 +- 0.005. But nothing has been discussed about ORP, or oxidation-reduction potential.”

The pH of tap water is about pH 7, or neutral. When tap water is electrolyzed into Ionized Water, its reduced water has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of about 4. Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium hydroxide or make acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen chloride, you will find very little change in the ORP values of the two waters. On the other hand, when you divide tap water with electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as much as +- 1,000 mV. By electrolysis we can obtain reduced water with negative potential that is good for the body.

USING IONIZED WATER
What IONIZED WATER Does

The Ionized Water unit produces two kinds of water with different redox potentials, one with a high reduction potential and the other with a high oxidation potential.

Reduced Water

When taken internally, the reduced Ionized Water with its redox potential of -250 to -350 mV readily donates its electrons to oddball oxygen radicals and blocks the interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules.

A biological molecule (BM) remains intact and undamaged.

Undamaged biological molecules are less susceptible to infection and disease. Ionized Water gives up an extra electron and reduces the active oxygen (AO), thus rendering it harmless. The AO is reduced without damaging surrounding biological molecules. Substances which have the ability to counteract active oxygen by supplying electrons are called scavengers. Reduced water, therefore, can be called scavenging water.

When taken internally, the effects of reduced water are immediate. Ionized Water inhibits excessive fermentation in the digestive tract by reducing indirectly metabolites such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles, resulting in a cleaner stool within days after reduced water is taken on a regular basis. In 1965, the Ministry of Welfare of Japan announced that reduced water obtained from electrolysis can prevent abnormal fermentation of intestinal microbes.

Oxidized Water

Oxidized water with its redox potential of +700 to +800 mV is an oxidizing agent that can withdraw electrons from bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water from the Ionized Water unit can be used to clean hands, kitchen utensils, fresh vegetables and fruits, and to sterilize cutting boards and minor wounds. Tests have shown that oxidized water can be used effectively to treat athlete’s foot, minor burns, insect bites, scratches, and so on.

Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo, Vice Director of the Water Institute of Japan, has developed another apparatus capable of producing hyperoxidized water with a redox potential of +1,050 mV or more, and a pH lower than 2.7. Tests have shown that this hyper oxidized water can quickly destroy MRSA (Methecillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus).

Although hyperoxidized water is a powerful sterilizing agent, it won’t harm the skin. In fact, it can be used to heal. Hyperoxidized water has proven effective in Japanese hospitals in the treatment of bedsores and operative wounds with complicated infections.

But perhaps the most exciting future application of hyperoxidized water is in the field of agriculture where it has been used effectively on plants to kill fungi and other plant diseases. Hyperoxidized water is non-toxic, so agricultural workers can apply it without wearing special protective equipment because there is no danger of skin or respiratory damage. An added benefit of using hyperoxidized water to spray plants is that there is no danger to the environment caused by the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the ground.

Ionized Water superior to antioxidant diet

Today we read much about correct dieting principles and paying attention to what we eat in order to stay healthy. This is a sensible practice, but it is surprising that many of us don’t realize that the bulk of what eat is composed of water. Vegetables and fruits are 90% water; fish and meat are about 70% water as well.

Even advocates of the importance of vitamin C in diet staples have to admit that its potency, namely, the redox potential of this important vitamin, rapidly diminishes with age and preparation for the dining table. Carbohydrates, the main consistent of vegetables and fruit, has a molecular weight of 180 whereas water has a much lower molecular weight of 18.

Ionized Water, with its low molecular weight and high reduction potential, makes it a superior scavenging agent of active oxygen. But electrolysis inside the Ionized Water unit not only charges the reduced water with electrons, it also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters.

NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap water and well water consists of clusters of 10 to 13 H2 0 molecules. Electrolysis of water in the Ionized Water unit reduces these clusters to about half their normal size — 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster.

As the graph shows, the NMR signal that measures cluster size by line width at half-amplitude shows 65 Hz for reduced water and 133 Hz for tap water, revealing that the reduced water clusters are approximately half the size of tap water clusters.

This is why Ionized Water is more readily absorbed by the body than untreated tap water. Ionized Water quickly permeates the body and blocks the oxidation of biological molecules by donating its abundant electrons to active oxygen, enabling biological molecules to replace themselves naturally without damage caused by oxidation that can cause diseases.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Upstream and downstream theory

Prevent disease at the source

According to Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, Director of the Water Institute of Japan, “To eliminate the pollutants in a large stream that is contaminated at its source, we must work on the problems upstream at the headwaters — the source of the pollution — not downstream where we can only try to treat the evidence of damage caused by the pollution. Ionized Water’s contribution to preventive medicine is essentially upstream treatment.”

Upstream

According to our model, we consider the digestive tract upstream where we intake water and food. Although many people today in developed countries are growing more skeptical about what they eat, they tend to concentrate more on what the food contains rather than the metabolized products of foods in the digestive tract.

Upstream

For example, consider the typical balanced diet of meat and vegetables. Meat protein is metabolized into amines while nitrates from fertilizers used to grow vegetables metabolize into nitrites in the digestive tract. These amines and nitrites combine to form nitrosamine, a recognized carcinogen.
We’ve already discussed that odoriferous feces are evidence of excessive fermentation in the digestive tract, so reduced water performs a very important function upstream in the digestive tract by reducing this excessive fermentation as evidenced by cleaner stools within days of starting a steady regimen of reduced water.

 

 

Downstream

Downstream

Downstream from the digestive tract, starting at the liver, reduced water quickly enters the liver and other organs due to, first, its lower molecular weight, and, secondly, the size of its clusters. At tissue sites throughout the body, reduced water with its safe, yet potent reduction potential readily donates its passenger electrons freely to active oxygen and neutralizes them so they cannot damage the molecules of healthy cells. Normal cells are protected from the electron thievery of active oxygen and allowed to grow, mature, function and regenerate without interference from rogue, oddball oxygen radicals which tend to steal the electrons from the molecules of normal, healthy biological molecules.

The water boom

We are now in the midst of a water boom. In Japan and other countries consumers are buying various kinds of bottled and canned water even though water is one of our most abundant vital resources. Research data reveals that mineral waters have an ORP of +200 mV, slightly lower than the +400 mV measured for ordinary tap water. We can say that at least mineral water is marginally better than tap water from the viewpoint of ORP. Compared to any processed water for sale, however, Ionized Water with its reduction potential of -250 to -300 mV is beyond comparison due to its ability to scavenge active oxygen radicals.

By Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, M.D.
Director, Water Institute of Japan
Nisshin Building, 2-5-10 Shinjiku,
Shinjiku-ku, Tokyo, Japan 160

Why Drink Alkaline Ionized Water?
The Basics
by Dr. Hayashi

+ Ionized Alkaline Water

Ionized Alkaline Water

We all know that water is essential for life. Water contains vital minerals that we need to stay healthy and strong and the hydrating effects of water can help us lose weight, maintain health, reduce disease, reduce the occurrence of headaches, and improve our overall wellness. But when you reach for a glass of water, do you give any thought to what you are drinking?

Well, you should… Read: Techincal information on Alkaline Ionised Water (the other tab on this page)

Studies are showing that our bodies need a variety of things from water… and frankly, we just aren’t getting them.

Even water run through various treatment methods can be ineffective at killing bacteria or cleaning out impurities… and some of them even take out the good things we need in water!

So when you choose water to drink, how do you know which water is the best water for you? After all, there are so many water purification methods out there that it is difficult to know which one is actually providing the best water.

You can start by asking these questions:

Water Purity:

How free is the water of contaminants and impurities?

While most municipal water systems in civilised Western countries are free of harmful bacteria, they are by no means free of chemical residues, heavy metals, chlorine by-products, and other micro organisms.

Alkalinity:

Is the water alkaline enough to help balance our bodies’ tissues – which are already overly acidic?

This is measured by a simple “pH” test.

Water oxidation:

Does the water have an oxidizing or anti-oxidant effect on the body?

Oxidants speed up cell degeneration while antioxidants prevent it. The standard here is the water found in quick flowing mountain streams – a natural antioxidant. The antioxidant property of water is measured with an O.R.P. meter (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential).

Mineral Content:

Healthy water should contain many minerals, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and trace elements. These are vital to a healthy life.

However…

Our bodies need fewer contaminants and bacteria than we’re getting.

Our bodies need water that is more alkaline than we’re getting.

Our water needs to be anti-oxidizing… and we’re not getting that either.

And our water needs to be a source of minerals, but many common water treatment systems strip those minerals from the water!

Some common types of purified water:

Municipal (tap) water contains various contaminants in levels permitted by the local authority, with overall guidelines set by the national and local governments and water authorities. However, in South Africa and other developing countries these are very poorly monitored and very seldom adhered to, resulting in extremely high levels of contamination in most cases. Tap water can range from acid to neutral to mildly alkaline (pH 4.3-7.5), which means it can either add further acidity to the body, or in some cases be very mildly neutralizing. Municipal tap water has no antioxidant properties, in fact is strongly oxidizing. Any antioxidant properties that may have been present in its original natural sources have been dissipated through contact with environmental pollutants, metal pipes, and the municipal treatment process.

Home Filtration Systems / Filters

There are two broad categories: mechanical filtration and fine filtration. In mechanical filtration, water is passed through a fine strainer to remove particles of sand, suspended dirt, rust and scale. These are trapped by the filter, improving the clarity and appeal of water Fine filtration is generally of two types: activated carbon (charcoal) or ceramic. There is an enormous range of quality, from inexpensive tap-mounted or pitcher to high-end filters costing thousands of Rand

Activated carbon (charcoal)

Activated Carbon filters account for most of the filters sold domestically, since they are inexpensive and simple to install. They can remove Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and varying amounts of chlorine products, as well as sour taste and bad odors. However, depending on the type of carbon used, they may leave heavy metals – such as arsenic, copper and lead, as well as volatile organic compounds. If a carbon filter is not changed regularly, it can become a breeding ground for bacteria, and stop being effective against the removal of trihalomethanes (a chlorine by-product).

Pitcher type/Pour-through filters:

Most reduce only a small number of organic contaminants.

Limited water volumes.

Frequent filter change is required.

Ceramic filters:

Ceramic materials are compressed into a densely packed arrangement, blocking the migration of particles smaller than 0.2 to 0.3 microns. These are useful for removing bacteria from unsafe water supplies, asbestos and cysts. However, ceramic filters cannot reduce volatile organic compounds, trihalomethanes, mercury or lead. Filtration does not significantly affect the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the source water, likewise, it is oxidizing; there are no antioxidant properties in filtered water.

Bottled Water

Many people swear by bottled water as an alternative to their tap water. But there is a huge variety in quality. Bottled water includes many labels: spring, prepared, artesian, mineral, drinking, purified, filtered, demineralized, distilled and others. Researchers estimate that 25% or more of bottled water is actually bottled tap water, “sometimes further treated, sometimes not.” (The “further” treatment generally consists of carbon filtration and/or ozonation. Ozonation is a process whereby ozone is used instead of chlorine to kill microbes.)

This is known as prepared water.

Spring water

Spring water is derived from an underground formation naturally flowing to the surface. It must be collected only at the spring. Most commercial spring water undergoes filtering or purifying processes before bottling and therefore does not retain minerals.

Mineral water

Mineral water contains no less than 500 ppm (parts per million) dissolved mineral solids. The dissolved minerals must be present at source and may include calcium, magnesium, potassium, fluoride, sodium, silica, chlorides, bicarbonates, sulphanates and iron.

No minerals may be added to this water.

Demineralized water

Demineralized water generally refers to treatment by reverse osmosis (RO).

Although Reverse Osmosis is effective in removing bacteria and viruses, it is not recommended that you rely on it solely if your water is contaminated with bacteria and viruses. In that case, ultraviolet treatment should be added.

RO systems can under certain conditions act as intensive breeding ground for bacteria. In addition, reverse osmosis water is de-mineralized. It provides no calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium or trace elements to the body. Because of this, mineral supplements are sometimes recommended.

Unfortunately, reverse osmosis creates water that is highly acidic and oxidizing. Therefore it is not recommended for long-term drinking. According to Zoltan P. Rona MD, “Because it is free of dissolved minerals, it has the special property of being able to actively absorb toxic substances from the body and eliminate them. Fasting using (RO) water can be dangerous because of the rapid loss of electrolytes and trace minerals, deficiencies of which can cause heart beat irregularities and high blood pressure. RO water is an active absorber and when it comes into contact with air, it absorbs carbon dioxide, making it acidic…Cells, tissues and organs do not like to be dipped in acid and will do anything to buffer this acidity including the removal of minerals from the skeleton and the manufacture of bicarbonate in the blood.”

However, all is not lost…

NatureZone Ionised Mineral Water is pure, natural water drawn from a pristine well deep below the earth’s surface in the beautiful, unspoilt Caversham Valley in the KZN Midlands. This mineral-rich water is naturally filtered by Mother Nature through 145 metres of shale and earth, and due to the crystal-clear quality of our water, absolutely no filtration whatsoever is required or used in our bottling process.

It then passes through a magnetic vortex ionisation process, before being energised at a frequency of 528Hz (the frequency at which DNA heals or regenerates itself), after which it passes through the Colloidal Silver Ionisation Vessel, where the main ionisation process occurs.

This resultant structured water, treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential, provides a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that our reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is an excellent solution because:

1. The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements.

2. The molecular weight of ionic water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.

The above processes not only charge the reduced water with electrons, it also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters. NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap water consists of clusters of 18 to 20 H20 molecules and well water 13 to 15 molecules.

Electrolysis, or ionisation of water in our structured Ionised Water reduces these clusters to 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster, which obviously vastly improves antioxidant and electrolytic properties, and the resultant healing and re-hydration benefits.

This is fantastic news for athletes, and many top athletes are now experiencing the (legal) advantages of ionised alkaline water, with amazing results. A cyclist or adventure racer for example, using ionised water, would need to only carry a third of what he/she would have needed previously with normal bottled water.

Post-race re-hydration is also dramatically improved with the extra electrolytic effectiveness, and the antioxidant properties help with flushing toxins and lactic acid build-up from the body, ensuring a much quicker recovery period.

Another huge benefit is the Alkalinity that results from the ionisation process. The pH of Ionised water changes as a result, and becomes alkaline. Bad diets, including meat and potatoes, fried foods, refined bread, soft drink colas and sugars, build up acid salts in the body. Often these deposits, by having to be stored away from the blood flow, can remain in the body for decades. Stress, both mental and physical, can create acid deposits in the body. Mental stress can also make you feel depressed. Doctors in Japan, following more than forty years of research and testing, believe that daily drinking of alkaline water, besides the normal documented benefits, can also lift depression.

Alkaline electrolytic water is also an excellent long term treatment for a lot of diseases including the organs ie heart, liver, kidneys, lungs and therefore every complaint affected by these, it can also destroy cancer tumours. It is probably the best anti-aging substance as it is antioxidant and much more available to the body cells due to the low molecular structure, than vegetables, fruit, or herbs. It removes plaque, cholesteral, fat etc. from the arterial tubes, reducing high blood pressure, angina and heart attacks through artherosclerosis

Arthritis And Alkaline Water

Uric acid is nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether, but soluble in solutions of alkaline salts. In other words, it becomes soluble in alkaline water. Arthritis and gout are caused by uric acid deposited between the joints, non-dissolved due to the low alkalinity of an older person’s blood. Drinking acid free alkaline water will gradually elevate one’s blood pH and the gout will disappear naturally.

As we live with poor waste disposal systems for a long period of time, some parts of our body build up more acids than others, and they can clog up capillary vessels around those acidic areas. This causes some body organs to function in a sluggish manner. We feel tired and run down sometimes for no reason whatsoever, and adult diseases such as high blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, allergies, etc. start to set in.

Alkaline water can alleviate this to a large degree.

Kidney And Bladder Problems

As the body consumes toxins, the kidneys become over burdened with acid wastes. Nephritis, uremia poisoning, and bladder problems are all acid related conditions which can be treated by the consumption of alkaline water. Kidney stones begin as tiny specks and they gradually build into solid stones, composed of phosphates, urates and others. They are another form of acidic salts. Drinking plenty of alkaline water will prevent kidney stones from forming, and even after their formation, it can dissolve them. Japanese doctors have used alkaline water for years to treat the kidneys.

Illnesses Treated/Improved By Alkaline Electrolytic Water

High blood pressure; Dehydration; Arthritis; Acidosis; Acne; Colic; Candida yeast; Thrush; Kidney problems; Liver problems; Gall Stones and Kidney stones; Lowers blood sugar; Ties up Free Radicals; Powerful Antioxidant; Obesity (Assists Weight loss); Diabetes; Constipation; Poor Circulation; High Cholesterol

NatureZone Ionised water which is alkaline and electrolytic with its low molecular weight, smaller molecule clusters and scavenging ability, is a better antioxidant than anything else as it is more available to the cells of the body, and you are able to, and should, drink plenty of it. The other immense advantage is the alkalinity of the water and its ability to flush out the body systems of the fatty acid build ups which cause obesity, artherosclerosis, heart and stroke problems, cancer, arthritis and a whole host of other ailments

The benefits of NatureZone Ionised Water

Ionised water hydrates up to 6 times more effectively than tap water

Ionised water is a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger

Ionised water provides dissolved oxygen throughout the body for energy and vitality

Ionised water promotes bowel regularity

Ionised water improves nutrient uptake

Ionised water acts as a detox by washing acidic waste from the body

Ionised water alkalinises the body

In addition, our NatureZone Structured Water is also energised at 528Hz – (the frequency at which DNA heals itself) AND magnetically ionised.

This imparts incredible healing properties to the water (for more information, browse “Solfeggio Frequencies”).

Expanding a New Scientific View Of the Functional Properties of Water

Functional water is water that has been exposed to external energy fields. This includes electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic (infrared, microwave, nuclear), ultrasound, and vortex implosion. The most widely used energy sources to make functional water are electrolysis and magnetic fields. The most scientifically studied functional water process is electrolysis.

The following is a report from the Waterlife Conference, November 2, 2001, Columbia University, New York City. © 2001 Bruce L. Erickson and Richard A. Wullaert, Ph.D.

Holistic Approach to Water

The current focus on water treatment is on what shouldn’t be in the water. This assumes that the removal of “bad’ things in water will make the water good (i.e., have a positive health benefit). From an historical point of view, this may be true, except some of the techniques/chemicals used to remove the “bad” things may add new components that reduce the health benefits of the water. Thus, the current concern for the toxic byproducts of chlorine disinfection. The wholistic approach would be to consider what negative functions we are adding to water in our effort to remove or reduce existing components (microbes, toxins, chemicals, etc.) that produce negative functions. The next thing is to consider what we can do to water to produce positive functions. Another way to use the wholistic approach to water is to be concerned with what role the solvent (water) plays in the effectiveness of what’s in it (solutes).

Microbiologist has long recognized the import role that biological water plays in the formation of cell membranes, enzymes, and even DNA. Water restructures itself to accommodate biological processes [1]. Thus, nature shows us that altering the structure and properties of the water can have significant effects on what can be accomplished by what is in the water.

Functional Water

There is Functional Medicine and Functional Food, so why not Functional Water. Functional (or Structured)water can be defined as water that produces a positive health benefit. If we look at the basic functions of water in the body, such as solvent, lubricant, nutrient delivery, waste removal, and most of all, enabling almost all key biological processes (i.e., life), it is clear that water produces a positive health benefit. One example of an historical version of structured water is the mineral water used at spas for internal and external health benefits. Another example is the addition of fluorides to drinking water, which is supposed to produce a positive dental benefit (when calcium fluoride is used, not sodium fluoride, which is the chemical used mostly by local water companies). Not everyone agrees that fluoride in any form is beneficial.

If we want to see the health benefits of water, just look at what the lack of sufficient water in the body (dehydration) can cause [2]:

• Increased risk of kidney stones.

• Increased risk of urinary tract cancers.

• Increased risk of colon cancer.

• Increased risk of breast cancer.

Some people feel that many of our health problems are due to chronic dehydration, and that proper hydration alone would cure many of our common diseases [3].

It is clear that water has medicinal and functional value. The key issue is what state should the water be in to provide the optimal medicinal and functional value. Unaltered source water from deep wells or protected springs would be a good start, but there are very few sources of water that are not treated by chemicals such as chlorine, ozone, and other chemicals. Thus, we should consider new treatment concepts that may restore or improve the medicinal/functional properties of conventionally treated water.

The historical way that functional water is produced is for nature or man to add minerals.

Recently, man has decided to make aquaceuticals. That is, water with nutraceuticals (vitamins, herbs, minerals, etc.) that presumably produce a health benefit. Note that in all these cases, water is just the carrier (solvent) and the health benefits are assumed to come from the additives (solutes). Now what if the properties of the solvent (water) could be altered so that it contributed synergistically or catalytically to improve the health benefits of the solutes. This approach to making functional water has been actively pursued in recent years, particularly in Japan and Russia.

The Japanese Functional Water Foundation defines structured water as water that has been exposed to external energy fields. This includes electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic (infrared, microwave, nuclear), ultrasound, and vortex implosion. The most widely used energy sources to make functional water are electrolysis and magnetic fields. The most scientifically studied functional water process is electrolysis.

Electrolyzed Alkaline Water

The Japanese and Russians have used electrolysis in combination with ion separation to produce functional waters with a wide range of beneficial properties for over 200 applications [4, 5].

For example, since 1966 the Japanese have been drinking ionised alkaline water to increase and enhance calcium absorption. Approximately 15 million Japanese now drink this water. The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare has certified that alkaline ionised water (a reducing water) assists in the alleviation of gastrointestinal disorders, acidosis, chronic diarrhea, and poor digestion. This same water is used in agriculture for enhancing plant growth. The acid electrolyzed water (an oxidizing water) that is produced by the same process [6] (and at the same time) is used as a disinfectant and pesticide.

Recent research in Japan has shown that ionised alkaline drinking water has a synergistic effect on antioxidants. For example, the antioxidant strength of vitamin C in electrolyzed alkaline water is several times greater than vitamin C in tap water. The synergistic effect is due to the higher dissociation/ionization constant of the functional (electrolyzed) water [7].

Other studies have shown that ionised water produces antioxidant behavior and protects DNA from free radical damage [8]. Clinical studies have shown that mice fed electrolyzed alkaline water lived 30% longer. This structured water enhanced the immune system and inhibited autoimmune disease [9].

Future Applications

There are many applications for structured water. Most of them have been subjected to limited testing and verification. A few of them have been extensively tested and are widely used outside the U.S. (human and animal drinking water, plant growth, food processing, disinfectant, pesticide). Based on this database, here are some possible future uses of functional water (used in the generic sense) in areas of interest to WaterLife.

Use functional water for drinking to enhance the health benefits of nutrients in the water or taken with the water (humans and animals).

Use functional water in cooking to improve the flavor and the nutritional value of foods.

Use functional water for plant growth so that nutrients are more absorbable and less water is required.

Use functional water for disinfection (water, food processing, medical and mouthwash).

Use functional water for skin problems (dermatitis, bruises, burns, bed sores).

Use functional water to reduce gastrointestinal problems (diarrhea, constipation).

References

[1] Westhof, E.; Water and Biological Macromolecules, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993. [2] Kleiner, S.; Water: An Essential but Overlooked Nutrient, J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc. 99 (1999) 200.[3] Batmanghelidj, F.; Your Body’s Many Cries for Water, Global Health Solutions, Falls Church, VA, 1992.[4] Proceedings of the Functional Water Symposiums, (1994 – 2000), Tokyo, Japan.[5] Bakhir, V.; Electrochemical Activation, 2 vol., All-Russian Institute for Medical Engineering, Moscow, 1992.[6] Kumon, K.; What is Functional Water, Artif. Organs 21(1997) 2.[7] Hanaoka, K.; Antioxidant Effects of Reduced Water Produced by Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride Solutions, (to be published in J Applied Electrochemistry, 2001).[8] Shirahata, S., et al: Electrolyzed-Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protect DNA from Oxidative Damage, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 234 (1997) 269.[9] Fernandes, G.; Effect of Electrolyzed Water Intake on Lifespan of Autoimmune Disease Prone Mice, FASEB Journal 12 (1998) A794.

The following is another article by the clinical nutritionist:

Dr. David Parker DIP ION, DIP EAV, Clinical Nutritionist, Electro-acupuncturist, Live Blood Analyst, Magnetic Field Therapist and BEST System Consultant.

www.stepstoperfecthealth.co.uk

“Today’s environment is not the best for our health, to put it mildly. The advert where the guy buys water sachets for large sums of money is not as far fetched as it seems when you consider water supplies and the chemicals that are put in or leach into the water supplies. So what can people do to try and maintain their health within a toxic environment?

One of the best ways is by drinking Ionised Alkalised Water. They could take supplements, herbal remedies, homeopathic remedies, allopathic medicines to name but a few ways of trying to maintain their health, but are the supplements and remedies being absorbed?

All treatments need one thing for them to have a chance of working, in whatever way they are designed to work, and that is a fluid medium. This fluid is WATER, not tea, coffee or any other beverage that you could name, just WATER. In theory the average adult has approximately 10 gallons of water in their body.

Today’s society is in danger of becoming “brainwashed” if they believe the water supplies are OK with the chemicals that are added and that leach into them. Have you ever thought about the quality of the water that you are drinking and, just as importantly, the amount of quality water you are drinking?

All tap water has at least chlorine in it, in order to sterilise the water, some supplies have fluoride as well. In some areas the water supply is recycled urine with chemicals added.

Eating a vegetarian diet is a way of starting to Alkalise, that is why people who have had ill health feel better on a vegetarian diet. The foods are primarily Alkaline and usually have a higher water content. However, most peoples fluid intake is still 50% Acid and 50% Alkaline, even bottled or filtered water is still at best a neutral pH which = 50% acid and 50% alkaline.

Distilled water or reverse osmosis water leaches out minerals (see science section by Zolton). So unless you stay on a vegetarian diet and start to stabilise the environment you will still revert back to an overall acidic environment, most beverages including some herbal teas are acidic. This will reverse the balance that you are trying to establish back to acidity, unless your beverage is an alkalised beverage. It makes logical sense to drink alkaline water, as our body is approximately 80% water and needs alkalising as well as hydrating properly. Acidity causes “dryness”, this can be seen in conditions such as arthritis, skin problems, constipation, the list goes on and on. Alkaline ion water attracts the “acidic ions” and carries them out of the body, if you drink enough alkaline water.

Remember most water is 50 / 50, which makes the water a neutral pH, not alkaline

Healthy cells live in an alkaline environment. Unhealthy cells live in an Acid accumulated waste environment. The nearest that you can get to spring water is alkalised water because that’s what it is, it is not purified water as some people would have you believe.

Osteopaths, Chiropractors, Physiotherapists, Physical therapists most of the treatments are focused on normalising joint and tissue function, they do this by mobilisation of the associated tissues and joints. What is the objective of the mobilisation, to get more lubrication and movement coming into the area because it has become “dry”? Why do these areas exist, because the environment is acidic! Where does the lubrication come from, water, so are these people drinking enough of the right type of water, I think not!

Nutrition – one of the main problems with assimilating nutrition is “acidity” either not enough or too much in digestion. How does alkaline water affect this, by providing the stomach mucosa with water so that it can excrete the right amount of hydrochloric acid for food digestion? Alkaline water does not neutralise the stomach acid, because there is no acid present until you have eaten. The water is needed and absorbed by the stomach mucosa in order to make the right amount of hydrochloric acid.

As an ideal, you should not drink at all with your meals, this upsets the acid balance in the stomach and so the breakdown of foods. So why do people take an ANTI-ACID with their meals, when all they need to do is drink alkalised water before their meal, it does not make sense? 1 glass of alkalised water is equal to 3 glasses of ordinary or bottled water in its hydration capability. Because of its high hydration capability alkaline water also provides the Pancreas and Gall Bladder with the ability to neutralise the acid / food mix coming from the stomach into the duodenum and small intestine so that it will not damage or “burn” it.

One area called peyers patches has a lot to do with the immune system and can be damaged by this acidic mixture. If we do not neutralise these acidic contents from the stomach with alkaline then we have the makings of an acid environment, which in turn causes indigestion, malabsorption, heat, inflammation and other ensuing problems.

A water ioniser has two chambers one is a positive chamber and the other is a negative chamber. Alkaline minerals in tap water are electrically positive. Acid minerals in tap water are electrically negative. As water passes into the ioniser these minerals are mixed together until they pass over the chambers. The positive minerals are attracted into the negative electrode chamber. The negative minerals are attracted into the positive electrode chamber.

This is how the ioniser basically separates the water into Acid and Alkaline water, so you get two from one so to speak. It also essentially tells us why reverse osmosis and distillation are not good for us on a long-term basis, as there are no minerals in the water obtained from these units. When you drink this type of water it “leaches” the minerals from your body. Some ions are not good for us because they are acidic, these ions are separated in the ionisation process from the alkaline water so that you are not drinking them, only beneficial mineral ions are in alkalised water.

Bacteria cannot survive in alkaline calcium ion water, however they can in ordinary tap water, unless it is boiled and even after boiling the water will at least still contain some dead bacteria and chemicals

Reverse osmosis filters (RO) remove everything from the water, including any minerals that might have been present, leaving a mineral depleted water that is free of dissolved minerals.

It has the special property of being able to actively absorb toxic substances from the body and eliminate them. Fasting using (RO) water can be dangerous because of the rapid loss of electrolytes and trace minerals, deficiencies of which can cause heart beat irregularities and high blood pressure. RO water is an active absorber and when it comes into contact with air, it absorbs carbon dioxide, making it acidic. Cells, tissues and organs do not like to be dipped in acid and will do anything to buffer this acidity including the removal of minerals from the skeleton and the manufacture of bicarbonate in the blood.

Some filtration systems will also remove certain bacteria as well as chemicals, but they will not alkalise the water. There are no filtration units that remove fluoride completely; fluoride can only be removed completely by distillation. Purified water is not alkalised water e.g. reverse osmosis and distilled water.”

Compiled by: David Parker DIP ION, DIP EAV, Clinical Nutritionist, Electro-acupuncturist, Live Blood Analyst, Magnetic Field Therapist and BEST System Consultant.

www.stepstoperfecthealth.co.uk

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